Normal Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint

The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body, making it the most susceptible to instability and injury. It is a "ball and socket" joint. A "ball" at the top of the upper arm bone (humerus) fits neatly into a "socket" (glenoid) which is part of the shoulder blade (scapula).

Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocations of the shoulder joint.

A dislocation occurs when the end of the humerus (the "ball" portion) partially or completely dislocates from the glenoid (the "socket" portion) of the shoulder. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation, whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation.

Rotator Cuff Tear

Rotator cuff is the group of tendons in the shoulder joint providing support and enabling wider range of motion. Major injury to these tendons may result in tear of these tendons, and the condition is called a rotator cuff tear. It is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle-aged adults and older individuals.

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by pain and loss of motion in the shoulder joint. It is more common in older adults between the ages of 40 and 60 years and is more common in women than men.

Frozen shoulder is caused by inflammation of the ligaments holding the shoulder bones to each other. The shoulder capsule becomes thick, tight, and the stiff bands of tissue called adhesions may develop.

Shoulder Impingement

Shoulder impingement is the condition of inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder joint. It is one of the most common causes of pain in the adult shoulder. The shoulder is a "ball and socket" joint. A "ball" at the top of the upper arm bone (humerus) fits neatly into a "socket" (glenoid) which is part of the shoulder blade (scapula). Shoulder impingement is also called a swimmer’s shoulder, tennis shoulder, or rotator cuff tendinitis.

Clavicle Fracture

Clavicle fracture, also called broken collarbone, is a very common sports injury seen in people who are involved in contact sports such as football, martial arts, and impact sports such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder that may occur during a fall on an outstretched arm, or a motor vehicle accident may cause the clavicle bone to break. Broken clavicle may cause difficulty in lifting your arm because of pain, swelling and bruising over the bone.

Shoulder Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a minimally-invasive diagnostic and surgical procedure performed for joint problems. Shoulder arthroscopy is performed using a pencil-sized instrument called an arthroscope. The arthroscope consists of a light system and camera to project images to a computer screen for your surgeon to view the surgical site. Arthroscopy is used to treat disease conditions and injuries involving the bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and muscles of the shoulder joint.

Shoulder Joint Replacement

The shoulder is a highly movable body joint that allows various movements of the arm. It is a "ball and socket" joint, where the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) articulates with the "socket" of the scapula (shoulder blade) called the glenoid. The two articulating surfaces of the bones are covered with cartilage, which prevents friction between the moving bones. The cartilage is lubricated by synovial fluid. Tendons and ligaments around the shoulder joint provide strength and stability to the joint.