Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint
The knee is made up of four bones. The femur (thigh bone) is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia (shin bone) connects the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee bends. The fibula is a shorter and thinner bone running parallel to the tibia on its outside. The joint acts like a hinge but with some rotation.
A fracture is a condition in which there is break in the continuity of the bone. In younger individuals, these fractures are caused from high-energy injuries, as from a motor vehicle accident. In older people, the most common cause is weak and fragile bones.
Meniscus tear is the most common knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A sudden bend or twist in your knee causes the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears, as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age. The two wedge-shaped cartilage pieces present between the thigh bone and the shin bone are called meniscus. They stabilize the knee joint and act as “shock absorbers.”
The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral, medial and lateral compartments. The patellofemoral compartment is the compartment in the front of the knee between the kneecap and thigh bone. The medial compartment is the area on the inside portion of the knee, and the lateral compartment is the area on the outside portion of the knee joint. Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment.
Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint
Knee Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to look into the knee joint to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and a majority of patients discharge from the hospital on the same day of surgery.
Total Knee Replacement (TKR)
Total knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial parts. The knee is made up of the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shin bone), and patella (kneecap). The meniscus, the soft cartilage between the femur and tibia, serves as a cushion and helps absorb shock during motion. Arthritis (inflammation of the joints), injury, or other diseases of the joint can damage this protective layer of cartilage, causing extreme pain and difficulty in performing daily activities.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope-like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears, unfortunately it does not heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.
ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction patellar tendon is a surgical procedure that replaces the injured ACL with a patellar tendon. Anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and helps stabilize the knee joint. Anterior cruciate ligament prevents excessive forward movement of the lower leg bone (tibia) in relation to the thigh bone (femur) as well as limits rotational movements of the knee.
Unicompartmental Knee Replacement
Unicompartmental knee replacement is a minimally-invasive surgery in which only the damaged compartment of the knee is replaced with an implant. It is also called a partial knee replacement. The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral (the compartment in front of the knee between the kneecap and thigh bone), medial compartment (the inside portion of the knee joint), and lateral compartment (the area on the outside portion of the knee joint).
Revision Knee Replacement
Revision knee replacement surgery involves replacing part or all of your previous knee prosthesis with a new prosthesis. Although total knee replacement surgery is usually successful, sometimes the procedure can fail due to various reasons and require a second revision surgery.