Foot & Ankle
The ankle consists of three bones attached by muscles, tendons, and ligaments that connect the foot to the leg.
There are two bones in the lower leg called the tibia (shin bone) and the fibula. These bones articulate (connect) to the talus (ankle bone) at the tibiotalar joint (ankle joint) allowing the foot to move up and down.
Achilles Tendon Rupture
Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping. Recreational sports that may cause Achilles rupture include tennis, football, basketball and gymnastics.
A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments that connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the joint or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump. Most commonly it occurs when you participate in sports or when you jump or run on a surface that is irregular.
Common Toe Deformities
Anatomically the foot is divided into the forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot. The forefoot has 4 small toes called phalanges and 1 large toe called the hallux (big toe). Phalanges have 3 bones and 3 joints, while the big toe has 2 bones and 2 joints. The midfoot and hindfoot have different structures that are responsible for bearing body weight and performing activities such as walking and running.
Plantar fasciitis refers to inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that lies at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toe and forms the arch of your foot. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. It is most often seen in middle-aged men and women, but may also occur in those who are constantly on their feet, such as soldiers.
A bunion, also called a hallux valgus, is an enlargement of bone or soft tissues around the joint at the base of the big toe that results in the formation of a bump. The bone that joins the big toe with the first metatarsal bone thickens and enlarges, tightening the tendons, which in turn causes the base of the big toe to angle out, resulting in a painful bony deformity.
Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally-invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.
Ankle Joint Replacement
The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot and provides free movement to the foot. It is formed by connecting the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) with the talus (ankle bone).
The surface of the ankle bones is covered with an articular cartilage. Damage to this cartilage leads to a condition called arthritic ankle, which results in pain and impaired movement of the ankle.